Chemical dating carbon

08 Apr

Characteristics: Carbon can exist with several different 3 dimensional structures in which its atoms are arranged differently (allotropes).

Three common crystalline allotropes are graphite, diamond, and (usually) fullerenes.

Lonsdaleite is a diamond-like carbon network which has graphite’s hexagonal structure.

It is made when meteorites containing graphite hit another body, such as Earth.

Lavoisier noted the overall weight of the jar was unchanged and that when it burned, the diamond had combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

He concluded that diamond and charcoal were made of the same element – carbon.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.

Carbon (in the form of coal, which is mainly carbon) is used as a fuel.

Graphene has a 2D crystal structure.(Fullerenes can sometimes exist in amorphous form.) Carbon can also exist in an amorphous state.

Many allotropes commonly described as amorphous, however, such as glassy carbon, soot, or carbon black usually have enough structure to not be truly amorphous.

The buckyballs arrived in comets or asteroids and have been discovered in rocks associated with the Permian-Triassic mass extinction 250 million years ago. A wonderful image released by Michael Ströck under the GNU Free Documentation License: The structures of eight allotropes of carbon: a) Diamond b) Graphite c) Lonsdaleite d) C60 (Buckminsterfullerene) e) C540 Fullerene f) C70 Fullerene g) Amorphous carbon h) Single-walled carbon nanotube. Harmful effects: Pure carbon has very low toxicity.

Inhalation of large quantities of carbon black dust (soot/coal dust) can cause irritation and damage to the lungs.