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This note covers the automated tools (freebsd-update and portsnap) and manual methods for updating Free BSD.

In general, the automated tools should be the preferred method.

If you are using the standard paths ignore commands marked with NON_STD_PATH_ONLY comment below.

Download the source files required: # the first time this process is performed use svn co svn://repository/base/release/x.x.x /usr/src # NON_STD_PATH_ONLY svn co svn://repository/base/release/x.x.x /var/src # where repository is the required host or mirror site # the default is svn.# but a list of current mirrors is available from this list # x.x.x is the version in this case it will be 9.1.0 # there is a handy web interface to the subversion system # to subsequently keep the source up to date for the selected version just use svn update /usr/src # NON_STD_PATH_ONLY svn update /var/src # if the run was terminated abnormally then use svn cleanup /usr/src Pure development branch - for hairy chested developers, or if you are really in need of some new feature and are prepared to take some risks.

As with all things Free BSD there are about 100,000 million ways of doing things which can leave folk confused when they read three different HOWTOs all describing different ways to accomplish the same goal. The author of the HOWTO has always done it that way.

There is no attempt to analyze the reasons - it just works.

As described in /usr/src/UPDATING entry 20121223, rebuilding the kernel with options KSTACK_PAGES=4 has been observed to resolve the boot-time crash.

We will be using non-standard paths so need we to do more work.

This is a big mistake since the Free BSD team have done a great job in making it relatively simple and painless.

This section is for those who want to know when they are in danger and when they are not!

The original UNIX operating system can trace its roots back to the 1960s.

The designers of UNIX created a design so flexible and powerful that even 30 years later, UNIX (and thus Free BSD as well) remains one of the most versatile, well-respected operating systems available.