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Moreover, there are several editions of ancient texts and recipe numbers/titles do not always match.Food historians confirm the ancients crafted foods approximating pie.The challenging part of researching these early pies is most of us rely on translators of original texts.These can vary according to scholarly proficiency and educated interpretation.In the cradles of civilization (Mediterranean region including Ancient Rome, Greece, Mesopotamia, Egypt and Arabia) the primary fat was olive oil.When combined with ground grains, it produced a rudimentary type of pastry.

The basic concept of pies and tarts has changed little throughout the ages.

Modern pie, as we Americans know it today, descends from Medieval European ingredients (fat=suet, lard, butter) and technology (pie plates, freestanding pies, tiny tarts).

"The idea of enclosing meat inside a sort of pastry made from flour and oil originated in ancient Rome, but it was the northern European use of lard and butter to make a pastry shell that could be rolled out and moulded that led to the advent of true pie." ---An A-Z of Food & Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 2002 (p.

The first pies were very simple and generally of the savory (meat and cheese) kind.

Flaky pastry fruit-filled turnovers appeared in the early 19th century.