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XII Computer Science STUDY MATERIAL “COMPUTER SCIENCE (083)” Class – XII Session: 2010-2011 CONTENTS Topic Page No Unit 1: Programming in C 5-93 1.1 C Revision Tour 5 – 36 1.2 Object Oriented Programming 37 – 41 1.3 Function Overloading 42 – 43 1.4 Classes And Objects 44 – 51 1.5 Constructors And Destructors 52 – 59 1.6 Inheritance: Extending Classes 60 – 69 1.7 Data File Handling 70 – 86 1.8 Pointers 87 -93 Unit 2: Data Structures 94 – 128 2.1 Arrays 94 – 106 2.2 Stack 107 – 119 2.3 Queue 120 – 128 Unit 3: Database and SQL 129 – 144 3.1 Database Concepts 129 – 134 3.2 Structured Query Language 135 – 144 Unit 4: Boolean Algebra 145 – 163 Unit 5: Communication & Open Source Concepts 164 – 173 HOTS Questions 174 -184 Sample Papers 185 – 195 Marking Scheme/ Solution 196 – 205 Practice Papers 206 – 242 Action Plan 243 – 245 Steps For Quantitative & Qualitative Improvement Of The Result 246 Difficulties Faced By Teachers & Suggestions 247 1.1: C Revision Tour POINTS TO FOCUS C Character Sets: Character set is a set of valid characters that the language can recognize.Letters A-Z , a-z Digits 0-9 Special Symbols Space – * / ^ \ ( ) [ ] = !ve value: if first string comes after second string in dictionary order strcpy copies (overwrite) one string to another strlen returns the length of a given string strupr converts string into upper case Header File : iomanip.h setf Sets ios flags.setw Sets the width of the field assigned for output.These are the data types that are not composed of any other data type.There are five fundamental data type: char, int, float, double and void. These are the data types that are composed of fundamental data types.These are array, function, pointer, reference, constant, class, structure, union and enumeration.

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc[[

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc\0”, “Computer Science\0”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.

char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.

cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.

char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.

putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

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Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc\0”, “Computer Science\0”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

]]”, “Computer Science[[

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc\0”, “Computer Science\0”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.

char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.

cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.

char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.

putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

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Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc\0”, “Computer Science\0”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

]]”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

”, “Computer Science[[

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc\0”, “Computer Science\0”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.

char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.

cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.

char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.

putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

||

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc\0”, “Computer Science\0”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

]]”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.

char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.

cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.

char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.

putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

”, “Computer Science[[

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc\0”, “Computer Science\0”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.

char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.

cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.

char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.

putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

||

Type : • Integer Constant  Decimal – 1234, 97 (not begins with zero)  Octal – 014, 023 (preceded by 0)  Hexadecimal – 0XC (preceded by 0x or 0X) • Character Constant (‘z’, ‘A’, ‘\a’, ‘\t’, ‘\’’, ‘0’, ‘3’ ) • Floating Constant (-13.0, -0.00065, 1.52E07, 0.172E-3) • String Constants (“abc\0”, “Computer Science\0”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.

]]”) Punctuators [ ] ( ) , ; : * = # Operators =, ! Variables: Variables represent named storage locations whose values can be manipulated during program run.e.g: A= 10; here A is a variable which holds the value 10.char ch; cin.get(ch); put() The put() function output a character to the standard output.cout.put(ch); getline() This function reads a line of text that ends with a new-line character.char ch=getchar(); putchar() This function prints a character to the screen.putchar(ch); The header file for the functions getchar()andputchar()is “stdio.h”.